LABORATORY TESTS RANGE VALUES

"Eliminate the cause, then the disease will pass."
– Hippocrates

Make yourself periodic preventive laboratory tests every six months. Thus you will benefit a huge advantage - namely, enough time to react in the management of a disease in its early stages, before the wandering panic at the last moment.

Here's what you should lab test:

• CBC (Complete Blood Count) + DBC (Differential Blood Count)
• ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
• Blood sugar
• Prothrombin time (INR)
• Folic acid (B9)
Vitamin B12
• Homocysteine
• Alkaline phosphatase (APL)
• Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
• C-reactive protein
• Cholesterol (lipid) profile – complex test
• Rheumatoid factor
• Hepatic enzymes – complex test
• K, Na, Cl (potassium, sodium, chloride)
• Ca (calcium)
• P (phosphorus)
• Mg (magnesium)
• Fe (iron)
• Renal function – complex test
• Uric acid


Remark:
The complex tests included in the above list contain in themselves the following elements:

• Renal function
    - Uric acid
    - Sediment
    - pH of urine
    - Total protein
    - albumin
    - creatinine
    - blood

• Cholesterol (lipid) profile:
    - Total cholesterol
    - Triglycerides
    - HDL (High Density Lipoproteins - "good")
    - LDL (low density lipoproteins - "bad")

• Hepatic enzymes:
    - AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase)
    - ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase)
    - Gamma GT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase)
    - Bilirubin

However, before you start to analyse any data from laboratory tests have in mind that a mass phenomenon in private and state laboratories, private clinics and university hospitals is the replacement of the physiologically normal reference ranges with those that are not only misleading but also criminally false. Why is this happening to this day I do not want to comment although the explanation is easy to guess. To avoid this "inconvenience" I attached herein below a list of reference values and ranges of most of the important medical lab test that have been checked from me in the textbooks of physiology and biochemistry.

Reference values are for adults:

1. BLOOD
1.1 BLOOD CELL COUNT
Erythrocytes
men
4.4 – 5.9
1012/l

women
3.7 – 5.3
1012/l
Hemoglobin
men
135 – 180
g/l

women
120 – 160
g/l
Hemoglobin fractions



-           Hb A

92 – 96
%
-           Hb A2

2 – 3
%
-           Hb F

0.3 – 1.0
%
Glycated HbA1c

up to 6.4
%
Hematocrit
men
0.40 – 0.53


women
0.36 – 0.48

MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)

82 – 96
fl
MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin)

27 – 33
pg
MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration)

300 – 360
g/l
Reticulocytes

0.002 – 0.018
(24-48 x 109/l)
Leukocytes

3.5 – 10.5
109/l
Leukogram



- Neutrophils (St, Sg):



St (stabs)

0.00 – 0.06
(0.00 – 0.50 x 109/l)
Sg (segs)

0.40 – 0.70
(2.10 – 6.40 x 109/l)
-    Eo (eosinophils)

0.00 – 0.06
(0.00 – 0.50 x 109/l)
-    Ba (basophils)

0.00 – 0.02
(0.00 – 0.14 x 109/l)
-    Mo (monocytes)

0.01 – 0.11
(0.07 – 0.80 x 109/l)
-    Ly (lymphocytes)

0.20 – 0.48
(1.10 – 3.80 x 109/l)
Platelets

130 – 360
109/l
ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
men up to 50's
up to 18
mm/h

men over 50's
up to 22
mm/h

women up to 50's
up to 25
mm/h

women over 50's
up to 30
mm/h
1.2 BLOOD COAGULATION
Bleeding time

2 – 5
min
Prothrombin time (PT):

10 – 15
s

activity
70 – 120
%

ratio (INR)
0.9 – 1.15

aPTT

25 – 38
s
Thrombin time

18 – 23
s

ratio (INR)
0.85 – 1.15

Fibrinogen

2 – 4
g/l
Therapeutic area:



Prothrombin time (PT):




activity
30 – 15
%

ratio (R)
2 – 3 (4)


INR
2.0 – 4.0

aPTT ratio

1.5 – 2.5

D-dimer

up to 0.2
µg/ml
Coagulation factors

50 – 150
%
Antithrombin (AT)

80 – 120
%
Protein C (Pr C)

70 – 140
%
Protein S (Pr S)

70 – 140
%
Plasminogen (PI)

80 – 120
%
α2-antitrypsin

80 – 120
%
Platelet aggregation

over 60
%
1.3 ELECTROLYTES AND OLIGOELEMENTS
S-Osmolality

280 – 295
mosm/l
S-K (potassium)

3.5 – 5.6
mmol/l
S-Na (sodium)

136 – 151
mmol/l
S-Cl (chloride)

96 – 110
mmol/l
S-Ca (calcium)

2.12 – 2.62
mmol/l
S-iCa2+ (calcium ions)
adults
1.1 – 1.3
mmol/l

children
1.1 – 1.5
mmol/l
S-P (phosphorous)
adults
0.84 – 1.45
mmol/l

children
0.95 – 1.95
mmol/l
S-Fe (iron, ferrozine, ferrum)
men
12.5 – 26.7
µmol/l

women
10.7 – 23.4
µmol/l
(AAS)
men
10.2 – 36.4
µmol/l

women
9.2 – 33.9
µmol/l
S-JAC (Iron Binding Capacity)

44.8 – 71.6
µmol/l
S-Cu (copper)
men
12.3 – 22.4
µmol/l

women
13.2 – 24.3
µmol/l
S-Zn (zinc)

12 – 24
µmol/l
S-Mg (magnesium)

0.7 – 1.2
mmol/l
S-iMg2+ (magnesium ions)

0.33 – 0.57
mmol/l
B-Pb (lead)

8 – 269
µg/l
S-Li (lithium)

0.86 – 4.5
µmol/l
S-Se (selenium)

423 – 1123
nmol/l
S-Cd (cadmium)

1.0
µg/l

smokers
2.0
µg/l
S-Al (aluminium)

0 – 10
µg/l
S-Mn (manganese)

0.5 – 0.7
µg/l
B-Mn (manganese)

4 – 14
µg/l
S-As (arsenic)

0.5 – 1.5
µg/l
B-As (arsenic)

2 – 7
µg/l
B-Mo (molybdenum)

0.8 – 3.3
µg/l
B-Ni (nickel)

4.5 – 28
µg/l
B-Cr (chromium)

2.8 – 45
µg/l
S-Cr (chromium)

0.12 – 2.1
µg/l
1.4 SUBSTRATES
S-Bilirubin
Total
3.4 – 21
µmol/l

direct
0.8 – 8.5
µmol/l
S-Glucose
venous blood
2.8 – 6.1
mmol/l
S-Glucose
capillary blood
3.5 – 5.5
mmol/l
S-Creatinine
men
74 – 127
µmol/l

women
58 – 96
µmol/l
S-Uric acid
men
214 – 488
µmol/l

women
137 – 363
µmol/l
S-Urea
men
3.2 – 9.2
mmol/l

women
2.6 – 7.2
mmol/l
S-Homocysteine

4.7 – 13.8
µmol/l
P-Ammonia

10 – 47
µmol/l
P-Lactate

0.6 – 1.5
mmol/l
1.5 LIPID STATUS
S-Cholesterol

3.4 – 5.2
mmol/l
S-HDL ( "good" cholesterol)
men
above 0.9
mmol/l

women
above 1
mmol/l
S-LDL ( "bad" cholesterol)

2.6 – 3.2
mmol/l
S-VLDL

up to 0.9
mmol/l
Cholesterol / HDL ratio

up to 5
mmol/l
S-Triglycerides

0.6 – 1.7
mmol/l
1.6 ENZYMES
S-AST (ASAT)

5 – 40
U/L
S-ALT (ALAT)

5 – 40
U/L
S-CK (Creatine Kinase)
men
30 – 200
U/L

women
20 – 180
U/L
S-γGT
men
< 50
U/L

women
< 35
U/L
S-ALP (alkaline phosphatase)

< 280
U/L
S-LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)

230 – 460
U/L
S-HBD (hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase)

< 200
U/L
S-Cholinesterase

5300 – 12900
U/L
S-Leucine Amino Peptidase

8 – 22
U/L
S-α-Amylase

< 95
U/L
S-AP (acid phosphatase)
men
up to 6.5
U/L

women
up to 5.5
U/L
Prostate

up to 2.6
U/L
S-Lipase

up to 195
U/L
1.7 PROTEINS
S-Total protein

60 – 83
g/l
S-Albumin

35 – 53
g/l
Proteinogram



-           S-Albumin

52 – 69
%
-           S-α1-globulin

1.6 – 4.1
%
-           S-α2-globulin

7.4 – 13
%
-           S-β-globulin

8 – 14.9
%
-           S-γ-globulin

10.5 – 20.5
%
S-α1-antitrypsin

0.9 – 2.0
g/l
S-α1-acid glycoprotein

0.5 – 1.2
g/l
S-α2-macroglobulin

0.7 – 4.0
g/l
S-C3

0.9 – 1.8
g/l
S-C4

0.1 – 0.4
g/l
S-ceruloplasmin

0.2 – 0.6
g/l
S-heptoglobin

0.3 – 2.0
g/l
S-prealbumin

0.2 – 0.4
g/l
S-transferrin

2.0 – 3.6
g/l
S-Ferritin
men
20 – 280
µg/l

women
10 – 140
µg/l

postmenopausal women
25 – 250
µg/l
S-Soluble Transferrin Receptor (sTfR)

0.83 – 1.76
mg/l
S-Cystatin C

0.50 – 0.96
mg/l
S-β2-microglobulin

0.96 – 2.08
mg/l
S-CRP

≤ 5
mg/l
S-β-lipoprotein

15 – 65

S-thymol test

up to 40

S-IgA

0.7 – 4.0
g/l
S-IgG

7.0 – 16.0
g/l
S-IgM

0.4 – 2.3
g/l
S-IgE

up to 100
IU/ml
S-light chain type κ

17 – 37
mg/l
S-light chain type λ

9 – 21
mg/l
S-κ/ λ

1.35 – 2.65

S-λ/κ

0.75 – 4.5

S-амилоид А (SAA)

< 6.4
mg/l
1.8 CONNECTIVE TISSUE MARKERS
S-Osteocalcin
men
3.4 – 9.1
ng/ml

women
3.7 – 10
ng/ml
S-C-terminal propeptide of



collagen I
men
76 – 163
ng/ml

women
69 - 147
ng/ml
1.9 HORMONES
S-FT3

3.54 – 6.47
pmol/l
S-FT4

11.5 – 23.2
pmol/l
S-TSH

0.35 – 5.5
mlU/l
S-Cortisol
8:00 hours
118.2 – 618
nmol/l

17:00 hours
85.3 – 459.6
nmol/l
S-Prolactin
men
44.5 – 375.2
mlU/l

women
59.3 – 619.0
mlU/l
S-PTH

1.59 – 6.89
pmol/l
S-IRI

3.00 – 28.00
mU/l
S-C-Peptid

0.26 – 0.66
nmol/l
S-DHEA-S

0.003 – 27.11
µmol/l
S-ATG

0.0 – 115.0
mU/l
S-ATPO

0 – 34
mU/l
S-Testosterone
men
8.36 – 28.7
nmol/l

women
0.49 – 2.64
nmol/l
Hormone

Follicular phase
LH
U/I
FSH
U/I
Estradiol
pmol/l
Progesterone
nmol/l
1.9 – 12.5
2.5 – 10.2
231 - 606
0.48 - 4.45
Ovulatory phase
8.7 – 76.3 (peak)
3.4 – 33.4 (peak)
536 – 1930
(peak)
-
Luteal phase
0.5 – 16.9
1.5 – 9.1
132.0 – 488.0
10.63 – 88.30
Menopause
15.9 – 54
23.0 – 116.3
0.0 – 136.0
0.0 – 2.32
Men (20-72)
1.5 – 9.3
1.4 – 18.1
0.0 – 191.0
0.89 – 3.88
1.10 VITAMINS
S-Vit. В12 (total)

156 - 672
pmol/l
S-Vit. B12 active, holotranscobalamin

25.1 - 165
pmol/l
S-Vit. B9 (folic acid)

2.5 – 45.4
nmol/l
1.11 DRUGS
S-Amikacin
peak value
20 – 30
mg/l

base value
< 8
mg/l
S-Valproic acid

350 – 700
µmol/l
S-Vancomycin
peak value
25 – 40
mg/l

base value
< 8
mg/l
S-Gentamicin
peak value
5 – 12
mg/l

base value
up to 2
mg/l
S-Digoxin

1 – 3
nmol/l
S-Diphenylhydantoin

40 – 80
µmol/l
S-Ethosuximide

280 – 700
µmol/l
S-Carbamazepine

17 – 51
µmol/l
S-Caffeine

40 – 70
µmol/l
S-Lamotrigine

5 – 15
mg/l
S-Monohydroxy Carbamazepine

8 – 40
mg/l
S-Primidone

23 -55
µmol/l
S-Theophylline

55 – 110
µmol/l
S-Phenobarbital

65 – 170
µmol/l
S-Chloramphenicol
peak value
30 – 60
µmol/l
B-Surolimus

5 – 24
µg/l
B-Tacrolimus

5 – 18
µg/l
B-Cyclosporine

100 – 250
µg/l
B-Cyclosporine C2

600 – 1700
µg/l
1.12 TUMOR MARKERS
S-CEA

0.0 – 4.6
µg/l
S-CA 125

up to 35.0
kU/l
S-CA – 15-3

up to 38.6
kU/l
S-CA – 19-9

up to 37.0
kU/l
S-PSA

0.0 – 4.0
µg/l
S-AFP

0.0 – 5.8
kU/l
1.13 CARDIAC MARKERS
S-Troponin I

0.0 – 1.5
µg/l
S-Troponin T

0.0        100.0
µg/l
S-Myoglobin

0.1 – 110.0
µg/l
1.14 ACID-BASE BALANCE
Ba-pH 37OC

7.36 – 7.44
-log mol
B-pCO2

4.66 – 5.99
kPa
B-SB

21 – 25
mmol/l
B-BE

-2.5 – 2.5
mmol/l
B-pO2

10.66 – 13.33
kPa
B-O2SAT

94 – 98
%
B-Lactate

0.5 – 2.2
mmol/l
2. URINE
2.1 ELECTROLYTES AND OLIGOELEMENTS
U-K (potassium)

25 – 125
mmol/24h
U-Na (sodium)

40 – 220
mmol/24h
U-Cl (chlorides)

110 – 250
mmol/24h
U-Ca (calcium)

2.5 – 7.5
mmol/24h
U-P (phosphorous)

10.9 – 32.3
mmol/24h
U-Cu (copper)

0.44 – 1.1
µmol/24h
U-Zn (zinc)

4.5 – 9.0
µmol/24h
U-Mg (magnesium)

7.1 – 11.7
mmol/24h
U-Pb (lead)

6.3 – 13.0
µg/l
Ca [mmol/l]/Creat [mmol/l]

< 0.57

U-Cd (cadmium)

0.5 – 4.7
µg/l
U-Mn (manganese)

20
µg/l
U-As (arsenic)

10 – 30
µg/l
U-Co (cobalt)

1.20 – 1.35
µg/l
U-Mo (molybdenum)

33 – 34
µg/l
U-Ni (nickel)

2.2 – 2.7
µg/l
U-Cr (chromium)

0.24 – 1.8
µg/l
U-osmolality

50 – 1400
mosm/kg H2O
2.2 SUBSTRATES
U-Total protein

up to 150
mg/24h

U-Albumin

up to 30
mg/24h
U-Glucose

up to 0.83
mmol/24h
U-Creatinine
men
8800 – 17600
µmol/24h

women
5300 – 13200
µmol/24h
U-Uric acid

1190 – 4160
µmol/24h
U-Uric acid
men
200 – 420
µmol/l

women
140 – 340
µmol/l
U-α1-microglobulin

0 – 12
mg/l
U-albumin
(first urine in the morning)

< 20
mg/l
U-transferrin
(first urine in the morning)

< 2.5
mg/l
U-IgG
(first urine in the morning)

< 10
mg/l
2.3 ENZYMES
U-α-amylase

< 450
U/L
2.4 CONNECTIVE TISSUE MARKERS
U-Deoxypiridin
men
2.3 – 5.4
nmol/mmol creat

women
3.0 – 7.4
nmol/mmol creat
2.5 HORMONES
U-Free cortisol

93 – 320
nmol/24h
U-Adrenaline

0 – 81.9
nmol/24h
U-Noradrenaline

59 – 389
nmol/24h
U-5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid

13.1 – 52.3
µmol/24h
2.6 ACID-BASE BALANCE AND OTHER
U-pH

4.5 – 8.2

U-Specific gravity (Density)

1.001 – 1.028

U-Sediment

4-5 Leukocytes, 2 Erythrocytes

3. FUNCTIONAL TESTS
Creatinine clearance

1.33 – 3.00
ml/s/m2
Clearance of sodium

0.017
ml/s
Clearance of potassium

0.5
ml/s
4. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
L-Protein
lumbar
0.15 – 0.45
g/l

ventricular
0.15 – 0.25
g/l
L-Glucose

2.22 – 4.44
mmol/l
L-sodium

138 - 153
mmol/l

Important!

Intake of a lot of medicines, vitamins and your particular health condition can significantly affect the results of laboratory tests, so be informed in advance for the technological requirements related to conducting of lab tested parameters. Any laboratory will advise you about them. For example vitamin C should be discontinued 3 days before each lab test, so as not to affect the results. The same is the situation with colds. In lab testing of ESR (sedimentation rate of erythrocytes) you should wait until full recovery from the illness in order to test this parameter. Excluding emergency cases, reliable data for most clinical laboratory indicators can be obtained if the biological fluids for their testing are taken in accordance with the biological (circadian) rhythms. As a rule, scheduled tests are conducted in the morning from 8:00 to 10:00 hours on an empty stomach, as on the previous day you must stop eating not later than 20:00 hours. Erroneous values in excess of 3 - 4 times the norm can be obtained especially when serum levels of many hormones and enzymes are tested if blood samples for their testing are taken at other times of the day.

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